Publié le 21 janvier 2018
The consequentialist ethic is a moral theory. This theory is founded on the idea, that the moral worth of an action is based upon consequences. Decisions to act are taken based on the consequences, that favour virtually all either one person or one group. The main objective may be the maximisation of happiness. Therefore, moral ethics is founded on the obtaining of great results. The consequentialist ethic is founded on two main and various theories. The earliest one is based upon the obtaining of good consequences and benefits for an individual. This is actually the Egoism. The second one focuses upon the huge benefits for the group or contemporary society of the individual. This is the Utilitarianism.
Jeremy Bentham has described the human action in this extract:
The consequentialist ethic could be a support the Eastern textile market. Asian textile producers have a strong competitive advantage compared to Western producers. In fact, the Asian labour can be cheap compared to Western labour. It ruined the textile sector in the West. Wages cannot be lowered to complement competition from Asia, prices are not lowered, either at the chance of bankruptcy. The best customers selected Asian textile goods, because they are less costly. This vicious circle destroyed the economy of western textiles. Western producers have two options to endure. Either specializes in markets not occupied by their Asian rivals (market demanding top quality products). Or relocate their development to East Asia to reap the benefits of cheap labour. Normally they will be doomed to disappear.
This is due to the choice made by the Asian producers, who distribute low wages. This decision is regular consequentialist. In fact, the Asian company that uses the low-cost workforce that cares for its own benefit. In choosing this decision, it ignores the results for competitors and for its employees. It is only based on its income to arrive, either the positive consequences of his action for him. He accordingly considers this action as "good", since it will be profitable.
This is an excellent example of egoism. This situation the Asian producer is the individual. His decision to shell out its workforce even more weakly than its rivals is its action. The seek out maximum profit, symbolizes the great consequence of his actions. The egoism in this case, is characterized by the fact that situation benefits only for him.
It is also an example of utilitarianism. The seek out personal gain is acting in the fascination of the group. This plays a part in the result of "Invisible Hand" enunciated by Adam Smith.
In doing this, the producer increases his personal advantage, but also that of his family (Wage increase), firm (Increase turnover), and his country (GDP growth). Its action based on the positive benefits for the group.
Furthermore, consequentialist ethics, applies a slightly different method to Asian personnel. Their ways of doing things is nearer to the universal egoism. In other words that the options they are still reliant on their consequences. Nonetheless it maximizes the joy of the group, only one. Wages acquired by staff, can feed households, permit children to go to institution and raising living criteria. Common egoism permits the association of "egoist" if indeed they have a common target or interest.
In summary, Asian manufacturers may be used the consequentialist ethic, bringing decisions based on analysis of the results. If the action can be beneficial enterprise for him – including his profit-maximizing, therefore it must execute. Suppliers need to assess the consequences of each decision before applying. Simply decisions leading to positive consequences ought to be retained. Producers should not take into account the negative impact on their foreign competitors.
The consequentialist ethic may also concern the Western Customers. At the individual level the Western consumer will search the product with the very best value. The consumer is faced with two choices likely when it wants to purchase textiles. Either buys the low-cost Asian product – sometimes how to write an essay introduction of poor quality-. Either buys a Western merchandise, a greater range -ensuring the quality in general-. To choose its product, the buyer can work by egoism or utilitarianism. That is to say that he will count on consequentialist ethics, analyzing the results of his act before acting. If the buyer decides to aid the western producers face, it’ll consume Western. The future customer will consequently seek to take local or national and prevent products imported from Asia.
From an Individual Egoism perspective, the buyer will move towards the least expensive product. The consequence of this act is the acquisition of something at the lowest price offered available to buy. The buyer only thinks the results of his act that directly affect them. It’ll therefore have difficulty in using Western.
From an General Egoism viewpoint, the consumer will evaluate the impact of order for the group. In other words to his country. It will consume Western since it is what creates the virtually all positive consequences for his or her group. Eating local helps stimulate the economy of his country. This could result in rising employment, wages, for instance, which ultimately produces a standard growth for the united states.
Utilitarianism theory based on the acts, leads buyers to ask themselves the next question: "The act of shopping for the Western item, in this context, presently there positive implications?" (From Wikipedia) The future customer will evaluate the context before acting. The context this is actually the loss of competitiveness of textile firms faces the West Asian competitors because of higher wage costs. This context includes a direct influence on cost. In his quest protectionist the consumer will buy Western to aid its market. This theory ignores the positive consequences before carrying out the act. It is based on the decision context. This theory is definitely defined by Harsanyi in the next extract:
Utilitarianism theory predicated on rules, leads customers to ask themselves the following problem: "The adoption of the rule must take in Western did have confident implications?" (From Wikipedia) According to this theory, the transition to action shouldn’t be based on the consequences of the act but on the monitoring of a pre-established guideline. The ruling testmyprep covers each of the outcomes of the adoption of a guideline. This theory is described by Harsanyi the following:
If the rule is accompanied by all consumers available in the market, then it will maximize the positive implications of these actions. If this guideline applies only to an individual or a little number it will not help, nor a confident effect.
Consequentialist ethic is based on searching for the maximization of happiness. To do this the agent must measure the future consequences of his act, before the realization. If pleased that the house will end up being maximized by the consequences of his take action so he can achieve. In the example of Asian textile producer and the Western customer, both can adopt a consequentialist philosophy. This may have the effect of the object, then they happen to be two players in a given market, and they therefore need to interact together.
The analysis of the results of an act prior
to its execution may seem quite practical in the financial framework. In general the research of an monetary agent is to maximize its profit, certainly not its happiness. That is particularly true in the context of a business whose aim is to create wealth. To accomplish business operates through guidelines. This helps avoid the unexpected. The actions follow rules and techniques. They are seldom judged individually.
A Chinese textile maker organizes its production to attain the best returns while having low labour costs. This organization allows it to be more competitive regarding selling price in comparison to its Western competitors. But for that it must abandon the qualitative facet of the merchandise, focusing only on the quantity (economies of scale). But the quality of something creates happiness. This is reflected in the satisfaction of the employee and the fulfillment of the purchaser regarding product features (comfort, power …). Consequentialist ethic which relies on the Chinese producer have a highly competitive market, may also justify the opposite strategy. Thanks to this example, it is simple to see that consequentialism is not an absolute theory. It is also criticized by some authors.
In the earlier mentioned excerpt focuses on the proportion of uncertain when a person produces a decision. This uncertainty is because of the possible lack of information. Indeed, the agent is performing when consequentialist believes that its actions will maximize happiness. Now to be sure, the officer must be informed of the problem surrounding before acting. That is not always practical. The agent will then make a decision predicated on his morality, but also facts that may no more be valid.
The various other limitation of consequentialism highlighted by Ruegger (University of Fribourg) may be the emotional bond that can exist between the actor and another specific mixed up in action. The writer explains that a relationship, or friendship, necessarily guide the decision of the agent. This aspect will be stronger than the will to follow consequentialist ethics. In the case of Western customer, this argument may easily be proved. Indeed, if the consumer chose the product with Western may be influenced by the fact that work-or a parent-for the Western organization that sells the product. He will pick the product it is indirectly linked to the detriment of the Asian product.
These arguments can query the merits of consequentialist ethics. The consequentialism is usually a theory that seeks to market the best actions. However the notion of morally great action seems random. It varies based on the position of the individual faced with a situation. What exactly are the influences experienced by the individual which are implicated here. More precisely: "the lack of information, which might influence your choice of the agent" (Hare, 1976). The presence of a link between the agent and another actor in a situation will influence the final decision (relating to Ruegger). Regarding the Asian maker and buyer Western consequentialism also has its limits. The best consumer may judge that would allow him to eat Asian savings and thus increase its revenue. For the Asian supplier, it could decide to increase the salaries of its workers to increase their happiness.
"Consequentialism could be interpreted as a philosophy, but not as an ethic."
In A Theory of Justice, Rawls challenges utilitarianism. It highlights the fact that the actor is the sole judge of its activities according to this theory. But the individual judgments can’t be regarded as necessarily just.
The ethics of virtue is based study knew the character of the average person. This ethic is composed of virtues that is to say, of character traits. For Aristotle, the four cardinal virtues are courage, modesty, Generosity, and spirit of justice. Today its list of virtues is much longer. The actions of individuals are considered good if they are consistent with these principles. Furthermore to considering the figure of the actor must take into account the circumstances of the action.
For example, a genuine person is thought as follows:
For Aristotle, the virtuous guy is he who chose the tone of voice of moderation. Asian Textile maker must follow this way to adopt the ethics of virtue. It must adjust its behaviour. Below are a few types of virtuous behaviour. Higher wages and improved functioning conditions. In other words be fairer.
Increase the standard of products available. To do this we should spend money on machinery, but also in training workers. In other words, to show courage by firmly taking a different way from Asian competitors.
The Asian maker must rethink the way they act to look at the ethics of virtue. By adopting this ethic, it could present available products that meet the expectations of Western consumers: the best quality products. And also improve its picture. Some producers still use child labour. It hurts their graphic. By adopting the ethics of virtue, this situation could change. The merchandise quality could be improved. This could be guaranteed by winning overseas awards such as ISO Standards. The standard of the task environment and working out of workers can even be improved.
The utilization of virtue ethics should cause the adoption of virtuous tendencies. This may allow the Asian makers, to respond in different ways to Western consumers. This requires a change of image. Improving the image can give confidence to customers and thus attract and preserve them.
Campodonico exhibit in the excerpt below, the area of ethics of virtue today:
In this excerpt, the author argues that the adoption of the virtues defined by Aristotle is still possible today. An Asian textile producer can adopt the ethics of virtue. The writer focuses on the swiftly changing environment. But he thinks that ethics described by Aristotle can cope with this sort of context.
However, it should be observed that the ethics of virtue is not always applicable in the current business environment. Indeed modern day management organizations are often based on different values â€‹â€‹of ethics. The main example may be the "corporate management". It’s the management of the company by shareholders. This kind is becoming increasingly important in modern day economies. In this sort of management decisions are often made â€‹â€‹in regards to their potential profitability. However, decisions are often made by groups (table of directors, lobbyists …). Your choice to act based on the judgments of more than a few individuals. This makes it difficult to use under patterns, as all individuals within a group don’t necessarily virtues. The final decision may be devoid of ethical virtue. With all this context of virtue ethics appears to be a good idea, but impractical.
He should understand that virtue ethics is another way for the Asian manufacturer to behave that you can buy. She has distinctions with consequentialism. The primary principle of the ethic may be the study of the type of the actor, instead of the results of his actions. The goal is comparable, is act morally right and good. The principles of virtue, whose bases were created by Aristotle, remain valid even today. But there are major doubts on the opportunity of applied in contemporary company.